Stress management and toughness training

One of the best explanations of the use of “stress oscillation” for increasing physical and mental toughness can be found in the works of James E. Loehr, an athletic coach turned corporate consultant. Loehr worked with star athletes such as tennis legend Monica Seles and Olympians such as speed skater Dan Jansen to improve their performance and bounce back from defeat to become tougher and more resilient. Loehr’s insights are well summarized in two books, “Stress for Success” and “The Power of Full Engagement”, the latter co-authored with Tony Schwartz.

Tennis. Loehr gleaned some of his most perceptive insights by using telemetry to observe the behaviors that separated the top tennis players from the lower ranks. Specifically, he found that the best tennis players are intense and focused during play, but show a remarkable ability to recover during “between-point” time, following routines that allowed them to pause and recover their energy for the next point. During these brief periods–approximately 25 seconds–between points, “top competitors were much more skillful oscillators during competition. The rhythmic increases in heart rate during points, and decreases in heart rate between points, meant that a competitor was adapting to the stress.” (SFS, p. 167). By contrast, poor competitors did not use their downtime wisely, not relaxing or even exacerbating the stress by disputing calls or showing emotion.

Toughening. The best of Loehr’s ideas are encapsulated in Part III of “Stress for Success”, entitled “Life Skills and the Toughening Process: Targeting Stress Exposure”. This section presents what I believe are the key concepts for effective toughness training based upon deliberate and controlled exposure to stress. Loehr takes research from sport science and applies it to training for toughness in everyday life.  “For decades, sport science researchers have been diligently investigating the relationships between stress and growth.  The optimal frequency, duration, and intensity of stress exposure for improving strength, speed agility, endurance, stamina, and toughness of all kinds have been vigorously pursued. The most important confirmation in all the research is simple and direct:  STRESS IS THE STIMULUS FOR ALL GROWTH.”  (SFS, P. 145).

Oscillation. Loehr goes on to describe training routines whereby one can increase stress tolerance by deliberately using intermittent intervals of stress exposure, oscillating with periods of recovery and rest. One of the most effect means of doing this is excercise, specifically interval training. According to Loehr, “exercise is really stress practice,” and he cites the training principle of “specificity” to argue that the exercise stress should oscillate, so that they resemble the up-and-down of stresses in real life. The intermittent stresses should be intense to the point of discomfort, but never painful. And the use of intervening periods of “active rest” and sleep are equally important for recharging.

The benefits of this approach to oscillatory stress training have biochemical correlates. Loehr cites research indicating that, whereas chronic, sustained stress leads to depletion of the stress hormone norepinephrine and elevation of cortisol, intermittent acute stress, followed by recovery, allows for increased tolerance and resistance to norepinephrine depletion.

Although Loehr mentions that sports scientists have studied the optimum intensity, duration, and frequency of applied stresses in exercise, he does not provide in his book any specific guidelines for optimizing these variables, beyond noting that they will vary based on the nature of the stress and subjective factors such as discomfort and pain thresholds. While being aware of one’s own thresholds is no doubt good advice, it seems to me that turning exploring the quantitative aspects of this science would be useful in helping to reveal more objective factors.

Beyond exercise. I believe that the application of stress and recovery cycles for training can be generalized beyond the use of physical exercise. Following the principle of specificity, why not train for life using more  specific stresses encountered in life, specific distractions or irritants, including physical stresses such noise, heat, or hunger; or interpersonal irritants such as yelling, nagging, or insulting. In fact, such deliberate exposure to stress and hardship is a techniques going back to the Stoics, who recommended training oneself to tolerate increasing levels of physical stress and discomfort by means of cold baths, sleeping on the floor, fasting, and learning to tolerate insults. Extreme forms of such exposures to stress have been used by the Army and Navy to harden their special forces (See my previous post on The Physiology of Stress), but I believe there is a lot of opportunity for both creativity and the use of proven behavioral science in developing and optimizing specific and effective techniques to help us become more resistant to a variety of life’s everyday stresses.


  1. Bungo

    Thank you for this useful post. As I read, I came across a kind of exercise whose objective is similar to the idea in this article. It is called Controlled Fatigue Training. (

  2. Troy


    As a long time athlete, I’ve noticed the best way to protect against over training, is to measure my morning RHR.

    If my morning RHR is elevating, it’s a good sign I’m over training. Which is often verified within a few days if I don’t slow down. I always wear a heart rate monitor when training, and if I ignore my elevated RHR, I will next notice I reach my target HR at a lower intensity.

    Ignoring that signal usually leads to illness or injury.

    This same signal might also be helpful in such adaptation training as cold showers.

    • Todd

      Thanks for this, Troy. Maybe I’ll start using my heart rate monitor in the shower!

      According to this link, overtraining can apparently result in either an increase or decrease in resting heart rate, depending on whether the sympathetic or parasympathetic autonomic nervous system is implicated:

      I have a friend who experience a dramatic drop in RHR due to overtraining as a cyclist. It ended up causing a serious cardiac condition, which took time to reverse.

      In any case, rest is a good thing to be sure we don’t overlook.

      • Troy

        haha – Yes, I’ve worn mine in the shower. And yes, my heart rate does elevate. No surprise there.

        From my own experience, and from those I’ve worked with, a lower RHR is usually a sign of severe over-training, whereas an elevated RHR is an early indicator.

        Phil Maffetone has some good material on this subject.

  3. Jim

    Excellent post as ever.

    The link in the piece re: Stress Inoculation in Special Forces (“”) doesnt work. I am particularly interested in reading this.

    As an aside, I have come across this jaw droppingly brilliant book “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration – A Comparison of Primitive and Modern 亚搏体育客户端下载 s and Their Effects” By Dr Weston Price, written in the 40’s. One of the most fascinating pieces on nutrition I have read in years.

    You guys can read it online here:

    If only I had read it when I was younger.

    • Todd

      Thanks, Jim.

      I read Weston Price’s great book about 20 years ago, and it was one of my initial inspirations for pursuing a generally “paleo” approach to nutrition and health.

      I fixed the broken link that you discovered…it was actually a link to my related post about the Physiology of Stress.



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